Price hike in oil prices: why and how

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The fuel Price in India hit the record high three figures for the first time in the history of India. On Wednesday the retail price of regular petrol hiked by 26 paise in Rajasthan’s Sri Ganganagar and reached Rs. 100.13. While the Diesel rested at Rs. 92.13 after a hike of 27 paise. The fuel prices in India vary from state to state, City to City. It is determined after implementing state and central government taxes. So why are the prices rising like never before?  After effects of the infamous Pandemic:  Due to the then on-going Pandemic, the demand of Crude Oil (pre refined petroleum) showed a significant drop in April 2020. Which then turned to a collapse in prices of crude oil.           After Pandemic, Saudi Arabia a key oil producing country voluntarily cut its supply by about one million barrels to 8.125 million barrels of crude oil to boost the prices hence to cover the loss due to Pandemic. Resulting in Price of Crude Oil hiked by about 50%. Compared to $40/Barrel

Pollution: All you need to know

                                             Introduction of pollution.

Pollution is the existence or penetration of a material or thing that has a substance or entity into the atmosphere (squirro, 2013) which can give Deleterious or toxic results. Essentially, it'sanything thing which will harm the surrounding environment. There are different kinds of pollution like air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, etc. All sorts of pollution are caused by different means and are harmful to both humans and therefore, the environment. Pollution is the introduction of chemicals that cause a significant change within the environment. Pollution may take the shape of either light, heat, or chemical compounds, like energy. Pollutants are emission agents that will be produced either spontaneously or from a man-made source. Such toxins affect the soil, air, and water. Pollution is divided into the contamination of the purpose source and non-point source. Pollution is such a gigantic concern because organisms starting from single-cell microbes to blue whales are passionate about the resources of the world and the pollution raises an issue on the well-being of all of them. Another point of concern is that several of the useful products to people have become a serious source of pollution which puts its end doubtful. Pollution may be a global problem although more pertinent in urban areas. Pollution can spread in such remotely isolated areas where no person lives just like the Atlantic Ice Sheet and a large cluster of plastic particles accumulated within The Pacific Ocean is thought because of the Great Pacific garbage patch. In keeping with Pure Earth, quite 200 million people are full of toxic pollution, in areas of high pollution, children are born with birth defects, and a decrease of IQ of 30-40 points and lowering of a lifetime because of diseases like cancer and other diseases (pure Earth, 2020).

                      


   Problems caused by pollution

There are different types of pollution and with each type comes its own different problems, Problems caused by air pollution: Health problems caused by humans: causes illnesses like pneumonia or bronchitis, cause itching and headaches in humans with exposure. In long term, they can also cause heart disease, lung cancer or cause damage to other organs like kidney or liver. Contamination of ecosystems: air pollution particles can accumulate on different bodies like lakes and rivers and contaminate them. Acid rain: Sulfur Dioxide and Nitrogen Oxide accumulate in the atmosphere and cause acid rain. These chemicals arise from the burning of different fuels and hence are a result of air pollution.

 Global Warming: One of the major agents in global warming is natural and anthropogenic air pollution. This happens due to the release of Carbon Dioxide, methane nitrous oxide. Problems caused by water pollution: Destruction of aquatic flora and fauna: Water pollution causes damage to many water bodies which makes aquatic flora and fauna most susceptible to its effects. Contamination of drinking water: In Urban areas, Industrial effluents have contaminated most of the water bodies near human settlement which puts the health of its people at risk as drinking contaminated water causes liver damage and causes diseases. According to a report, up to 2.1 billion people around the world dont have access to safe drinking water which makes up for almost ¼th of the world’s population do not have access to safe drinking water. Disturbance in the food chain: Due to the presence of tiny microplastics and industrial effluents in different water bodies, this causes microorganisms to ingest them and when larger animals consume these beings, pollution moves up the food chain. Problems caused by land pollution: Pollution of soil: this causes loss of fertile lands and land erosion which can cause much greater losses. Global Warming: One of the most severe and possibly a long-lasting problem is global warming. The main agent in Global Warming is pollution. It is caused by a sort of blanket of pollution which traps heat in the Earth’s atmosphere. This blanket is formed by Greenhouse gases which are emitted from several useful objects for humans like cars, trains, air conditioners, etc. These greenhouse gases get accumulated in the upper levels of the Earth’s atmosphere and trap heat coming from the Sun which ultimately leads to the rise in Earth’s temperature. Global Warming is such an important issue because of the greater troubles arising from it like melting of Polar Ice Caps, Extinction, and endangerment of many species, loss of habitats and many more troubles which have gruesome effects on the planet and will become worse by the day if solutions are not found and worked upon. (National Geographic, 2019).

Evidence of pollution

Pollutants will be created by human action, like trash from the factories or it is often natural, like volcanic ash which damages the standard of air, water, and land. pollution causes many diseases and health issues. The long-run and short-term exposures to fine particle pollution also referred to as fine particulate (PM2.5) results in the premature death and harmful respiratory effects, like asthma attacks and affects the vascular system, including heart attacks and strokes. In 2009, the EPA (Environmental Protection Agency) determined that emission of greenhouse emission (CO2) and other greenhouses gases cause severe health problems, global climate change, and acidification of the ocean. per the Air Quality Guidelines and also the Global Update in 2005, both the short term and long-run exposure to PM2.5 suggest additional health outcomes be related to PM2.5. Among them, the foremost findings thus far are (i) the consequences of short term exposure to PM2.5 ends up in cardiovascular mortality and morbidity; (ii) several new health outcomes including atherosclerosis; (iii) adverse birth outcomes and childhood respiratory disease; (iv) neurodevelopment and cognitive function additionally as other chronic disease conditions like diabetes. According to the WHO unit which incorporates the scientists in epidemiology, toxicology, and public health provide evidence that the pollution caused by chemicals (organic or inorganic products like detergents or petroleum products), pathogens (coliform bacteria), or the other physical parameters (e.g. Elevated water temperatures decrease oxygen levels) cause serious health issues. Pollution is the exposure of contaminants in water bodies, like oceans , lakes, rivers, and groundwater which result in the degradation of aquatic ecosystemsand cause public health problems (water-borne diseases) for people living downstream. Domestic sewage is the primary source of coliforms and other organic pollutants that cause water-borne diseases and endangers the standard of water within the water bodies, where high oxygen levels are required to survive for fish and other aquatic organisms. Land pollution is the accumulation of hazardous or non-hazardous waste materials which can be solid or liquid onto land or underground which contaminate the soil and spring water. The pollutants that cause pollution are classified into municipal solid waste (MSW), construction and demolition (C&D) waste, and unsafe waste (e.g. from septic tanks). MSW includes nonhazardous garbage and trash from homes (food wastes e.g., eat and vegetable scraps) and dry materials like paper, glass, textiles, and plastic objects and ponderous waste materials like discarded mattresses, appliances, pieces of furniture),institutions (e.g., schools), commercial, and industrial facilities. (Britannica, 2018) C&D waste includes concrete rubble, wood and metal objects, and other inert materials produced when structures are built, renovated, or demolished. Hazardous wastes include solids, sludges, or gases by various chemical manufacturing companies, petroleum refineries, paper mills, smelters, machine shops, dry cleaners, automobile repair shops, and plenty of other industries or commercial facilities. once they contact soils contaminated chemically (e.g. gasoline, benzene), people have serious health issues like cancer (e.g. leukemia), damage of the system nervous and neuromuscular blockade, and depression of the central system caused by the presence of lead (Pb) in soil. (Britannica,2018

Future of pollution;

On the off chance that contamination goes on in this pattern, at that point the accompanying occasions can occur. Eradication: Pollution adversary affects untamed life and will keep on doing so into what's to come. A 2004 report in "New Scientist" expresses that contamination is the essential driver of the elimination of different types of butterflies and different bugs in Great Britain (live science,2018). Even though contamination represents a danger to animals ashore, sea-going animals may confront a significantly more serious risk. As indicated by the Environmental Protection Agency, an expected one to 11 percent of all marine species will fall into elimination consistently somewhere in the range of 1975 and 2015. Water contamination comes from modern and agrarian spillover and notwithstanding introducing a peril to oceanic life, water contamination likewise impacts people - since the elimination of marine life unfavorably influences the evolved way of life. Human Illness: As poison levels increment, human openness to poisons will likewise increment. The Environmental Protection Agency takes note that openness to toxins is straightforwardly connected to malignancy and coronary illness. Air contamination is an essential issue in metropolitan territories and for people who live close to significant streets, since vehicles, radiate a high centralization of toxins. As air contamination expands, specialists envision that the negative wellbeing impacts of openness will likewise increment. An Earth-wide temperature boost: Burning petroleum derivatives for energy, for example, coal, oil, and flammable gas discharges carbon dioxide and different poisons into the Earth's air. High carbon dioxide levels increment the air's temperature. As indicated by the John Ray Initiative, this can make the Earth's normal the temperature quickly changes. The expression "nursery impact" regularly has negative implications. Be that as it may, the nursery impact is characteristic and advantageous cycle by which the Earth's ozone keeps heat from getting away into the air. Since carbon dioxide makes the temperature on Earth increment, the ozone layer's capacity to trap heat near the surface can bring about a dangerous atmospheric deviation as contamination levels heighten. Financial Effects: Pollution, because of its capacity to cause disease in people can significantly affect the world's economy. The World Health Organization takes note of that an expanded pace of disease because of contamination puts a monetary strain on insurance agencies, government-financed wellbeing projects, and people themselves. Furthermore, the more people who become sick, the less profitable representatives are available to play out the exercises important to keep a business running. Understudies missing from school because of diseases brought about by contamination may botch instructive chances they would have in any case delighted in - further expanding the future monetary difficulties social orders would look like because of contamination. 

Effects of pollution.

Contamination influences non-public satisfaction beyond what one can envision. It worksin puzzling ways, here and there which cannot be seen by the unaided eye. Nonetheless, it's without question present within the climate. for instance, you most likely won't have the choice to determine the flammable gases present noticeable all around, however, they're still there. Additionally, the toxins which are wrecking the air and expanding the degrees of greenhouse emission is extremely risky for people. An expanded degree of dioxide will prompt an unnatural weather change. Further, the water is dirtied for the sake of contemporary turn of events, strict practices and more will cause a deficiency of water. Without water, human existence is absurd. Besides, the way squander is unloaded on the land within the end lands up within the dirt and turns poisonous. On the off chance that land contamination continues occurring like this, we cannot have ripe soil to develop our yields on. Consequently, genuine estimates should be taken to decrease contamination deeply.

Solution of Pollution

Pollution is the presence of toxic substances in the air. It can occur by natural and some human activities. We have a responsibility for reducing pollution. We can use public transport instead of our vehicles for reducing air pollution. Don't use plastic bags. Recycle and reuse things. We can avoid burning materials. We can use solar, wind, geothermal energies instead of fossil fuels. We can reduce the use of electronics like the conditioner, refrigerators. Never pour fats, medicines, oils, grease down the sink for preventing water pollution. We can use only phosphate-free soaps and detergents. Properly treating the wastages of factories before releasing them into the environment. We can use biodegradable and organic products. They can contribute to reducing pollution. Pollution may cause different types of health problems and diseases in humans.So, we must protect our environment.

 - Mayank Mishra 






























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