Two years since Article 370: A major success for the NDA?

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  Two years after Indian parliament revoked the autonomous status of Jammu and Kashmir, Prime Minister Narender Modi’s government seems to have succeeded in bringing the region under its direct control.On 5 August 2019, a proposal to abolish Article 370 and 35A implemented in Kashmir was introduced by Home Minister Amit Shah in the Rajya Sabha. After which President Ram Nath Kovind also approved it after the resolution was passed in the Rajya Sabha. After getting approval from the President, Article 370 and 35A were abolished from Jammu and Kashmir. After this big decision of the central government, Jammu and Kashmir and Ladakh were separated and divided into two separate union territories.   After the abrogation of Article 370 and 35A, Union Home Minister Amit Shah had said, 'Now our country can move forward on the path of peace and development.' He said that this step will further strengthen the policy of zero tolerance towards terrorism. Shah exuded confidence th

What exactly is Communism

 Now Communism if simply put, is social, political and economic ideology leading to a movement whose main aim is to establish a communist society where the means of production are owned communally and there is no place for private ownership.

According to communists, there exists two classes in society and this is the sole reason for all conflict. These two classes are proletariat, the working class which forms the majority of the population and the bourgeoise which forms very little of the population but enjoys a lavish life earning from the work of the proletariat. The communists hence put in place a social revolution where the private ownership of properties is replaced with social ownership, this forms the basis for communism.


Communism as a term originated from Victor d’Hupay’s idea of living in communes where all property will be shared and all may benefit from everybody’s work. Modern Communist ideology began to develop during the French Revolution with the “Communist Manifesto” written by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels which presented the French Revolution as an important turning point in history in which overturned the older feudal structure and replaced the earlier struggle of nobility with serfs to pitting the Bourgeoise with the Proletariat. Communism aims to make a classless society. Marx and Engels and many of their followers rooted for a proletarian revolution which would start a much greater social revolution which would eventually lead to the last stage of human development which would mark an end to this division based on classes and usher an era with no social classes, religion or property. A popular Marxist slogan at the time was that the state would function "from each according to his ability, to each according to his needs."

                                             

The Soviet Union 

The actual use of the theories of Marx and Engels would not be put to use until after their deaths. In the October Revolution of 1917, with the ousting of the Tsar, a new group known as the Bolsheviks came to rise with Lenin at the head of it. Prior to this revolution, Lenin had come up with the idea of Marxist theory of Vanguardism where a group of politically enlightened group of elites was necessary for such an arrangement as communism to usher. He died soon after the civil war and then his successor Stalin took over in 1927. He followed many tyrannical methods to pursue brutal ethnic and ideological purges. Tens of millions of people died between 1922 and 1950 in which there were also casualties caused due to the fight with Nazi Germany.

However, with the use of five-year plans, the Soviet Union saw rapid industrialization and reached new economic heights. Its GDP growth rate outpaced that of the USA between 1950 and 1965 but it was still slower than that of its capitalist counterparts.

The Soviet Union was dismantled in 1991 and the new system was a bit lenient on private enterprises and free speech. This did not affect the economic growth as seen in Soviet Union but allowed to lessen the points of dissent against it. 

Why Did Communism Fail?

There are a multitude of factors responsible for the failure of this system but there are a few which have been pinpointed by the researchers over the years.

1. Absence of Incentives: One of the basic principles of Communism is that there is no presence of sole motives and sole profits. Communism thrives on everyone working for each other’s benefits rather than their own. This eliminates the presence of competition in society. Competition in society leads to greater pace in development and innovation. In a communist society this was not present.

2. Central Planning: One of the Inherent problems with the system of communism was the presence of centralized planning. Centralized Planning led to aggregating the data for every project that had to be put in place. This humongous amount of data led to making the whole process a lot more complex than would have happened if there was federal structure or even if there was some sort of planning at regional level.

There was also concentration of power in a few hands which indirectly gave them an incentive to reap benefits and retain their position which led to inefficiency and corruption became common practice in East Germany and Soviet countries which in the end led to the collapse of economy.

      Author - Mayank Mishra



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